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Verb to adjective: Suffixation

 
 
Verb-to-adjective suffixation is the combination of a verb stem and a suffix to form a new adjective. There are different types of verb-to-adjective suffixation:

Without umlaut

This is the least complex type of verb-to-adjective suffixation. Examples:

verwenden + bar = verwendbar
kleben + (e)rig = klebrig
schwatzen + haft = schwatzhaft
abhängen + ig = abhängig
misstrauen + isch = misstrauisch
beachten + lich = beachtlich
schweigen + sam = schweigsam

German suffixes that can form new adjectives without umlaut:

bar erig haft ig
isch lich sam


With umlaut

Some suffixes can cause the stressed vowel a, o or u of the stem to be umlauted:

schlafen + (e)rig = schläfrig
auffallen + ig = auffällig
zanken + isch = zänkisch
verkaufen + lich = verkäuflich

All suffixes that can cause umlaut are German:

erig ig isch lich


Combined derivation (prefixation and suffixation)

Some suffixes can form new adjectives from verbs by combining suffixation with simultaneous prefixation with the prefix un:

un + sagen + bar = unsagbar
zählen + ig = unzählig
aussprechen + lich = unaussprechlich
aufhalten + sam = unaufhaltsam

Suffixes that can form new adjectives with un:

bar ig lich sam


Combined derivation (compounding and suffixation)

The suffix ig can form new adjectives from combinations of an adjective and a verb:

fein + fühlen + ig = feinfühlig
schwer hören schwerhörig
weit laufen weitläufig

 ig 


Foreign suffixes

Apart from a few exceptions, foreign suffixes are only added to verbs ending in ieren. The ier of the verb stem is deleted.

profitieren + abel = profitabel
tolerieren + ant = tolerant
demonstrieren + ativ = demonstrativ
existieren + ent = existent
konvertieren + ibel = konvertibel
definieren + it = definit
adaptieren + iv = adaptiv

All foreign verb-to-adjective suffixes:

abel ant at ativ
ent ibel il it
itiv iv







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